Limiting warming in line with the Paris Agreement goals requires deep cuts in transport emissions, even as demand for transport continues to grow. Yet under business as usual, emissions are projected to double. Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) – countries’ plans to address climate change under the Paris Agreement – can help correct course. Yet while most countries mention transport in their NDCs, few draw on the full range of available solutions. Only 29 specify quantitative targets for transport. Reviewing the current NDCs – as well as recent technological advances – through the lens of the “Avoid-Shift-Improve” framework for sustainable transport, we identify meaningful, novel opportunities for countries to enhance their NDCs by better integrating transport solutions. We highlight three key opportunities to enhance NDCs via transport: accelerating electrification while addressing fuel economy; strengthening “avoid and shift” measures that support travel by low-carbon modes; and seizing new opportunities to address freight emissions via electrification and use of information technology.